The existence of national minorities represents a challenge for the states which defined themselves as the states of one or two prevailing ethnical nations. Therefore the question of rights of persons belonging to national minorities plays an important role in both internal legal order and international or European law. A period favorable for radical development of conception of rights of persons belonging to national minorities was in 1990 -2000. The main progress was reached in Europe, mostly on the soil of the Council of Europe. This book provides a systematic analysis of documents dealing with these rights in international and European law including a description of main current problems. Therefore it could be useful for lawyers, political scientists, journalists, academics and students.